There are many ways struck-by accidents can occur, but the most common involve:
Vehicles, cranes, falling or flying objects, and construction of concrete and masonry walls.

Vehicles and Cranes

Follow these safety precautions to avoid being struck by vehicles or cranes at your worksite.

  • When working near vehicles, make sure you’re visible to vehicle operators at all times. Eye contact is important.
  • Never exceed the load capacity for a vehicle. Do not ride on a vehicle unless equipped with a safe place to sit.
  • If you are operating a vehicle, wear a safety belt if the vehicle is equipped with one.
  • Workers at the worksite need to be trained on safety.
  • Cranes need to be set up on solid, level ground, so they do not tip or fall.
  • Loads need to be secured properly, so they do not drop.
  • Determine how much a crane can safely lift before using it. Never exceed the crane’s load capacity.
  • The crane operator needs to stay in communication with other workers.
  • The appropriate crane maintenance and inspections need to be performed.

Falling and Flying Objects

  • Falling objects often present a hazard when working near cranes, scaffolds, materials handling operations, and stacked materials.

Follow these safety precautions to avoid injury.

  • Avoid working underneath loads being moved.
  • Barricade hazard areas and post warning signs.
  • Inspect cranes and hoists to see that all components, are in good condition.
  • Do not exceed the lifting capacity of cranes and hoists.
  • Wear a hard hat.
  • Secure tools and materials to prevent them from falling on people below.
  • Use toeboards, screens, or guardrails on scaffolds to prevent falling objects or,
  • Use debris nets, catch platforms, or canopies to catch or deflect falling objects.
  • Stack materials to prevent sliding, falling, or collapse. Bags of materials should be stacked neatly by stepping back the layers and cross-keying the bags at least every ten bags high.
  • Do not store materials on scaffolds or runways.
  • Use debris chutes and barricades to keep personnel from being struck by waste materials.

Constructing Concrete and Masonry Walls

Follow these precautions to prevent struck-by injuries involving concrete and masonry walls.

  • Do not place construction loads on a concrete structure until a qualified person indicates that it can support the load.
  • Adequately shore or brace structures until permanent supporting elements are in place or concrete has been tested to assure sufficient strength.
  • Take measures to prevent unrolled wire mesh from recoiling, such as securing each end or turning the rollover.
  • Do not load lifting devices beyond their capacity.
  • Use automatic holding devices to support forms if a lifting mechanism fails.
  • When building masonry walls, use limited access zones (LAZs) to restrict access to areas surrounding the wall construction area.
  • Always wear protective head and face equipment.

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